• What is Flowchart ? Explain the symbols used in flow-charting.

A flowchart can be defined as the pictorial representation of logical steps, indicated to guide the programmer, to write a program, for a particular task. It is similar to preparation of a plan by an architect before building a house.

Flow Charts:

Flow chart is a step-by-step diagrammatic representation of the logic paths contained within a computer program (Algorithm).

Flow chart Symbols:

For easy visual recognition, a standard convention is used in drawing flow chart. They are as follows:

  1. Terminator ( Oval Symbol)

Rectangle with rounded corner is used to indicate START and END of a program. It is the first and the last symbol in the flowchart. It is also known as terminator symbol.

Symbol for start and end
Symbol for start and end
  1. Process-indicators (Rectangle Symbol)

Rectangle is used to indicate by set of processing operations such as for storage arithmetic expression, calculations, computation and initializing a value to variable, etc.

Process-indicators symbol
  1. Input and Output Indicators (Parallelograms)

Parallelograms are used to represent input and output operations. Statement s like INPUT, READ and PRINT are represented in parallelograms. Whenever we need to take data from  the user we use this symbol. This symbol also used to give result to the user.

Input and Output Indicators
Input and Output Indicators



  1. Decision Maker:

The diamond is used for indicating the step of decision making and therefore known as decision box. It is used to indicate the process of logic in a program which may be of getting an answer to a question or may be of testing any condition.

Decision Maker symbol
Decision Maker symbol
  1. Direction Arrows:

The arrow symbols are used to indicate the exact sequence in which the different instructions are to be executed. This symbol is used to control the flow of the operation. This symbol is used to connect various symbols used in the flowchart.

Direction Arrow
Direction Arrows
  1. Connectors:

A circle is used to join different parts of a flow chart as a connector. The use of connectors gives a next appearance to a flow chart. If the chart extends over more than one page, the different parts are joined with a connector.  The connectors are also used to eliminate the crossing lines between one part of the flow chart to another.