Write a short notes on : Assembly Language and Machine level language

Assembly Language:

The first step in the development of the programming languages was the Assembly language. It is also called as Symbolic Language. It was used in the second generation of computer.

In Assembly language the Op. Code (Operation Code) was replaced by mnemonics and operand address was replaced by symbolic address.

Assembly language is intermediate between machine language and high level language. It is easy to understand and develop programs in assembly language than in machine language, but it is still difficult and time consuming to write an assembly language program than a High Level Language program.

Assembly language program is also machine dependent, program developed on one computer cannot be used on another computer, so it is called as low level language.

Computer cannot execute a program written in assembly language because computer understands only machine language. So, it should be translated in machine language, this translation is done by the Assembler.



  • Assembly language program is machine dependent hence it is not portable.
  • It is difficult and time consuming to write a program in Assembly language
  • To develop an assembly language program one should be technical expert and need to know all the details of the internal structure of the computer.
    Working of Assembler
    Working of Assembler

    Assembler is system software. It is a translator program, which translates Assembly language program into machine language. It translates one Assembly language instruction into one machine language instruction. After translation the program is ready for execution.

    The Assemblers Performs following operations

    • It translates mnemonic (symbols) into actual Op. Code.
    • It translates symbolic address into actual operand address.
    • It checks the syntax of each instruction and if any error is found, it displays an error massage. You should correct the error and then re-run the program.
    • After the Assembly process is completed, it generates an object program on the secondary storage. Once the object program is ready you can execute it any no. of times.
    • If required, it can produce printed list of the source program.


    Machine language:

    The most basic form of programming is the Machine language. In the first generation of computer the operating system and High Level Languages (HLL) were not developed, so the machine language was the only available language in the first generation of computer.

  • Machine language format of instruction
    Machine language format of instruction


    • Machine language is also called as Low Level Language (LLL), because it is machine dependent. The program developed for one computer cannot be executed on another computer.
    • It is difficult and time consuming to develop a program in machine language.
    • A programmer has to be a technical expert, normally an electronic engineer who knows each and every detail of the internal structure of the computer.



    • Computer understands only machine language. So, the Computer directly executes the machine language program, it does not require translation. So, the program execution is fast.
    • Operating System and other system programs can be written in machine language.